In recent years, researchers have been experimenting with how to combine the electrons in an atom, a process called “electron stacking.”
Electrode-based stacking involves stacking a single electron at a time atop a single carbon atom.
If you’ve ever tried stacking a coin, you know that the top of the coin will fall into the hole the next time you drop it.
Electron stacking is a great way to keep an atom alive while its electrons are being pulled apart.
Electrons can also be used to charge the electronic device.
In a lab, the electrons are exposed to a source of electrical current (a voltage) and then attached to a resistor.
The electrons will “jump” back and forth across the resistor to change the current.
Because electrons are charged, they can be used as “fuses” to make the circuit more conductive.
But electron stacking requires two electrodes, which means that the voltage needs to be balanced.
The best electrodes are nickel or silicon.
Because these materials have good conductivity, they are ideal for electron stacking.
But because they are very light and don’t have a high surface area, they’re not as attractive as the electrodes of a conventional battery.
“The main reason why lithium ion is not a good electrode material is the low surface area,” said Roberta Rood, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science at Rice University.
“If you want to stack the electrons on top of another electrode, you have to have the electrodes that are very close together.”
The downside is that lithium ions are more expensive than other metals.
“Because of that, there is a lot of resistance,” Rood said.
“It’s really hard to find nickel or a silicon electrode with good conductance.”
That makes it difficult to use the electrodes in electron stacking, and it limits the use of the material as an electrode in new applications.
“In the future, it may be possible to make lithium ions available in batteries, but for the foreseeable future, they have not been tested in practical applications,” Rous said.
A battery that uses lithium ions will need to be designed to work with lithium ion, she added.
A second problem with electron stacking is that it has a large cost, Rood explained.
“This is not going to be easy, and we don’t know the scale of it,” she said.
So far, the largest commercial battery in use is an electrochemical battery.
It uses nickel or lithium oxides as the electrolyte.
In the future it may need to use more exotic electrolytes.
The battery is designed to charge and discharge quickly.
But Rood and others have found that when they add a second electrode, they create a problem.
“When you add a third electrode, it doesn’t solve the problem,” Roud said.
For a typical battery, the voltage rises and falls slowly, she said, which makes it hard to control the voltage.
“For some of these applications, you want the battery to be very stable,” she added, “but the stability doesn’t work well with lithium ions.”
In addition, there are problems with the electrolytes themselves.
In one recent study, researchers created a lithium ion electrode that was highly conductive, but also had very poor electrical conductivity.
“We have very little control over that electrolyte,” Rodd said.
The new study, which was published in the Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, showed that using an alternative electrode to the nickel or the silicon electrolyte would improve the battery’s conductivity by about one percent, Rous added.
The researchers also compared the electrical properties of the lithium ion and the lithium oxide with the electrode of a battery made of nickel and silicon.
Both electrodes exhibited significant electrical resistance when the researchers added an additional electrode, which is about a half an order of magnitude higher than the resistance of the other electrode, the researchers found.
So if the new electrode is used in a battery, Roud hopes it can be less prone to electrical interference.
“They’re very good electrode materials, but we need to understand how the electrodes are being used,” she told Fox News.
“There is a tremendous amount of research that needs to go into this because lithium ions have a lot to offer in battery chemistry.”
For more on battery chemistry, watch the video below.
“Electron stacking has been shown to be really good for electrodes, but it’s not well suited to batteries,” Roester said.